نرحب بزيارتكم * بعض اقسام موقع النادي قيد الانجاز * « Welcome to the Official Website for the Lebanese Numismatic and Philatelic Club, Lebanon « الطوابع اللبنانية من العام 1969 لغاية 1960 قيد الانجاز -الطوابع اللبنانية ما قبل العام1960 قيد الاعداد « http://lnpclub.blogspot.com/ شارك في المدونة الالكترونية للنادي على العنوان التالي : « شاهد قسم نشاطات النادي « العملات المعدنية من العام 1964 حتى تاريخه شاهدها الان في القسم الخاص « مناظر طبيعية من لبنان -5 ليرات فضة - 2012 مجموعة تذكارية من مصرف لبنان « لقاء مع رئيس النادي الأستاذ وارف قميحة على قناة الجزيرة الوثائقية ضمن برنامج شغف 11-11-2013 « مجموعة اصدارات الاديرة الثلاثة - بمناسبة عيد الام ثلاث طوابع لسيدات لبنانيات مع بلوك - طابع الارمن - الفيفا - 50 عام على مصرف لبنان -مجموعة طو «
 
 
المكتبة و أدوات الهاوي
مكتبة الطوابع وادوات الهاوي


الأدوات المستخدمة :
الطوابع
كاشف العلامة المائية
ستوك شيت
البوم طوابع
ملقط
 
العدسة - المكبر
ادوات الهاوي -Stamp collecting equipment
مسطرة قياس شرشرة(تخريم)الطوابع
كانلوج
 
club
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مقالات :
البوم الطوابع
2011-02-19
ألبوم الطوابع :وهو كتيب صغير يحتوي على صفحات بها غطاء شفاف لوضع الطابع خلف هذا الغطاء الشفاف لحمايتها و لامكان رؤيتها دون إخراجها من الكتيب ( يشبه إلى حد ما ألبوم الصور الفوتوغرافية ) ويوجد العديد من أنواع وأشكال الألبومات والتي تختلف في حجمها وفي عدد صفحاتها

1-
  stamp album is a book, often loose-leafed (to allow for expansion), in which a collection of postage stamps may be stored and displayed.

Albums are the nearly universal means for keeping stamps, used for both beginners' and world-class collections, and it is common to characterize the size of a collection by its number of albums.

The arrangement of stamps on an album page depends on the taste of the collector and the purpose of the collection. A collection with "one of each" stamp may have rows of stamps packed onto each page, while a specialist's page might have a dozen examples of the same type of stamp, each captioned with a description of printing details or colour shades. Traditional page creation was done with pen and ink; in recent years page layout software and computer printers have become popular. AlbumEasy, available free, for both Windows and Linux, is an example of one of the many page layout programs.

Many collectors buy preprinted albums and pages, which are produced by several manufacturers. The gamut ranges from worldwide albums, with only enough spaces for the common stamps and a few more, to one-country albums with spaces for every type of stamp known. The usual format is to print a black-and-white picture of the stamp in each space, reduced in size so that a real stamp will cover it up, and add a thin frame around the stamp. Captions range from minimal mentions of perforation or watermark, up to a paragraph giving a little background on the stamp's subject. Album pages are almost always one-sided; two-sided pages save space, but require interleaving sheets to prevent stamps from catching on each other. Pre-printed albums come in various formats where the collector can mount a used stamp with a hinge, create a pocket for the individual stamp using a pre-cut mount to stick to the page, or the easiest type called a "hingeless album" system where the pre-printed album page includes a place to put your postage stamp.

Better-quality albums have padded covers, which reduces possible pressure on the stamps exerted by adjacent albums on a shelf. Careful collectors do not cram albums tightly together, so as allow for a bit of air movement through the pages, and to prevent gum oozing or sticking.

2-
Stockbooks
are storage books used by stamp collectors for storage of postage stamps placed in pockets, on pages, for easy viewing. Other philatelic items, such as plate blocks, miniature sheets, covers, lettersheets, etc., can be stored in stockbooks.


Stockbooks consist of a number of stiff pages, made up with horizontal pockets of manilla paper, glassine paper or clear film, into which stamps are placed. Collectors can insert stamps side by side in a row or can overlap stamps when individual viewing is not necessary. The pages, usually double-sided, are bound into book form. The most popular sizes comprise between 4 and 32 double-sided pages with each page interleaved with a glassine, or clear, sheet to prevent stamps on adjacent pages from touching.

As with most stationery, most manufacturers refer to the number of sides in a stockbook and not to the number of pages, so stockbook advertised as a "16-page stockbook" contains 8 double-sided cardboard pages.


Some collectors require more flexibility than a bound stockbook allows, because moving individual stamps from page to page can be time consuming and may cause damage. Several manufacturers produce individual stock pages that can be inserted into loose-leaf folders. Stock pages are usually sold in packages of multiple sheets of 5 or 10 to a packet.

Stock pages are made from plastic or thick card. In either case they have clear pockets on one or both sides. These pockets are attached on three sides with the top side being open to insert the stamps.

On some sheets the pockets are attached to the page on one side only, that is the bottom side. The sides are left unattached so that the pocket can be lifted open to place a stamp or a philatelic item. This arrangement reduces the chance of damage, since unlike in a three-side-attached stock page the stamps are not inserted or pushed into a pocket.







ملقط
2011-02-19
الملقط : والذي يستخدم في التقاط الطوابع بحرص حتى لا يتم خدش أو قطع الطابع نظرا لأن قيمة الطابع تقل بحدوث أي خدوش أو عيوب بسطح الطابع

Stamp tongs are tweezers used to handle postage stamps. They are used by stamp collectors and philatelists, because they are a reliable way to hold and move stamps without damaging or getting skin oils on them. The jaws of stamp tongs are smooth in contrast to the striated jaws of the type of tweezers one might use to grasp and pull a thorn; such tweezers will damage stamps. They can also be an efficient way to handle a small stack of stamps.

Stamp tongs are nearly always made of metal, with lengths ranging from 10–20 cm (4-8 inches). The tip is usually thin, so it can slide under a stamp easily, and may come in several different forms.

The "shovel" tip is a broad spatula shape, often bent at an angle. The "pointed" tip tapers to a sharp point; while useful for precise positioning, as when mounting the stamp on a page or picking a particular stamp from a pile, the sharper tip can also tear a delicate stamp. There are also "rounded" tips available that beginning stamp collectors like to use to avoid damaging their collection.






العدسة - المكبر
2011-02-19
العدسة : وهي تستخدم لمشاهدة تفاصيل الطابع بوضوح حيث أن معظم الطوابع يكون مكتوب عليها بخطوط صغيرة جدا يصعب على العين المجردة رؤيتها بوضوح وذلك بالطبع يرجع إلى دقة حجم الطابع

A magnifying glass (called a hand lens in laboratory contexts) is a convex lens which is used to produce a magnified image of an object. The lens is usually mounted in a frame with a handle . The distance between the Magnifying glasses and the object must be shorter than the focal length of the lens for this to occur. Otherwise, the image appears smaller and inverted, and can be used to project images onto surfaces. The framed lens may be mounted on a stand, keeping the lens at the right distance from the table, and therefore at the right distance from the object on the table. The latter applies if the object is small, and also if the height is adjustable. Some magnifying glasses are foldable (from the handle or stand).




كاشف العلامة المائية
2011-02-19

 كاشفة العلامة المائية : وهي أداة لرؤية العلامات المائية في بعض الطوابع التي تحمل مثل هذه العلامة , وهذه الكاشفات أنواع وأحدثها التي تعمل بالأشعة فوق البنفسجية , ولكن ثمنها ليس بمرتفع حيث إنه مصباح فلورسنت صغير لونه يشبه اللون الأزرق وهو يعمل بالبطارية .

 

 Signoscope T1 - The Proven Professional Unit

    * Uses a position lever (handle) for fast removing and inserting stamp tray and to adjust pressure
    * On-off light switch · Contrast adjuster · 7.5 Volt light output
    * Especially recommended for difficult stamps (US stamps, British Colonies, etc.)
    * Maintenance free
    * For stamps up to size 2" x 2"
    * Operates on 5 "AA" (1.5 Volt) batteries, or an optional AC Adapter with 7.5 Volt DC output
    * Weight: 1lb. 15 oz. - Size: 8" x 4-1/4" x 5-3/4"H





مسطرة قياس شرشرة(تخريم)-الطوابع
2011-02-19


 مسطرة قياس شرشرة (تخريم) الطوابع: وتستعمل للتفريق بين الطوابع المتشابهة ولكن بطبعات مختلفة , حيث يقاس كم سنا للطابع في كل سنتيمترين , وقد ابتكر هذه المسطرة أحد كبار هواة جمع الطوابع الدكتور "جاك امابل لغراند" عام 1282هـ -1866م , والمسطرة رسم عليها عدة صفوف من نقاط سوداء أصغر وأكبر , فيتم وضع أسنان الطوابع بين هذه النقاط حتى نجد النقاط المناسبة التي تعبئ هذه الأسنان ثم يقرأ مقاس التخريم المذكور على طرف هذا الصف من النقاط , وهذا المقاس عبارة عن رقم يدل على عدد أسنان الطابع في كل سنتيمترين .

 




كاتلوج
2011-02-19

 الكاتلوج: وتزداد أهميته كلما تقدم الهاوي في الهواية لأنه حينئذ يحتاج إلى تفاصيل أكثر وهي موجودة في الكتلوج

A stamp catalog (or stamp catalogue) is a catalog of postage stamp types with descriptions and prices.

The stamp catalog is an essential tool of philately and stamp collecting. Stamp catalogs are part of philatelic literature.

 History

The first stamp catalog was published in France by Oscar Berger-Levrault on 17 September 1861 and the first illustrated catalog by Alfred Potiquet in December 1861 (based on the earlier work).

The first catalogs in Great Britain were published in 1862 by Frederick Booty,[1] Mount Brown, and Dr. John Edward Gray. The first in the United States was The Stamp Collector's Manual by A.C. Kline (a pseudonym for John William Kline), also 1862.

Older catalogs are still widely used by collectors as they may contain information not found in current catalogs and not all collectors are concerned about prices.
[edit] Catalogs today

Originally catalogs were just dealers' price lists, and in most cases, that is still one of their functions. Over time, as philately developed, catalogs tended to accumulate additional supporting details about the stamps, such as dates of issue, color variations, and so forth. As their use by collectors became widespread, the catalogs came to define what was and was not a legitimate stamp, since many collectors would avoid stamps not described in the catalog. In recent years, the Internet has become a common resource for information about stamps. Some catalogs have an on-line version while others are available only on-line.

The following printed catalogs have a worldwide coverage:

    * Michel
    * Scott
    * Stanley Gibbons
    * Yvert et Tellier





لبنان في طوابعه-مجموعة شفيق طالب
2011-02-19
لبنان في طوابعه-  مجموعة  شفيق طالب

تأريخ مصوّر لأحداث ومحطات


"لبنان في طوابعه" الصادر عن دار النهار يستعرض الطوابع التي كانت تستعمل عندنا، بدءاً بالمكاتب الاجنبية التي كانت تعتمد طوابع بلدانها وعليها توشيح خاص، بالاضافة الى الطوابع العثمانية. وعندما دخل الفرنسيون لبنان استعملوا الطوابع الفرنسية (للتخليص البريدي) موشحة بالاحرف الثلاثة T.E.O. وتعني: "اراض عدوة محتلة"، Territoires Ennemis Occupes. وفي 1920 استعملت الطوابع الفرنسية ايضاً وعليها توشيح بالاحرف الثلاثة O.M.F. وتعني (احتلال عسكري فرنسي) Occupation Militaire Francaise، واستمر استعماله حتى 1923-1924 حين اعتمدت الدولة الفرنسية طوابع بلادها وعليها توشيح Grand Liban "لبنان الكبير". وفي 1924 اصدرت فرنسا طوابع خاصة بلبنان عليها التوشيح الفرنسي مع ترجمته بالعربية. وفي 1925 اصدرت دولة لبنان الكبير طوابعها الخاصة التي تبدأ بـ10 سنتيم وتنتهي بـ25 قرشاً وعددها ثلاثة عشر طابعاً، وتحمل صورا جميلة من لبنان.

هذا ما يتعلق بالبريد العادي. اما البريد الجوي فقد استعملت له الحكومة الفرنسية طوابعها مع توشيح خاص بالطيران، فضلاً عن طوابع خالص الاجرة.

وعندما صدرت طوابع لبنان الكبير، صدرت معها مجموعة خالص الاجرة، ووشحت الطوابع البريدية بتوشيح خاص بالطيران عليه كلمة Avion بالفرنسية وعددها اربعة طوابع. وبعد فترة قليلة استدرك الخطأ فزيدت على التوشيح كلمة: طيارة باللغة العربية، مع صورة طائرة باللون الاحمر.

وأصدر لبنان الكبير عام 1926 مجموعة "اعانة اللاجئين" المؤلفة من اثني عشر طابعاً موشحة بالعربية والفرنسية. وفي العام نفسه عُدلت الرسوم البريدية حتى باتت الطوابع لا توافق المطلوب فوشحت الطوابع المذكورة بقيم جديدة تتناسب مع التعرفة الجديدة.

وفي 1927 صدرت مجموعة من الاوراق البريدية نفسها وعليها توشيح بالفرنسية فقط Republique Libanaise لكي تستعمل للبريد العادي والجوي وخالص الاجرة. لكن السلطات الفرنسية ما لبثت ان لاحظت ان في ذلك افتئاتاً على اهل البلاد حين لم تذكر لغتهم على الطوابع البريدية، فوشحت المجموعات الباقية لديها بتوشيح الجمهورية اللبنانية، وترجمة للتوشيح الفرنسي، مع رسم طائرة.

تعددت المجموعات اللبنانية الموشحة باللغتين العربية والفرنسية، الى ان كان مؤتمر الحرير عام ،1930 فأصدرت الحكومة اللبنانية مجموعة مؤلفة من ستة طوابع عليها دودة الحرير وشرنقة. وفي العام نفسه اصدرت الحكومة مجموعة من الطوابع عليها مناظر لبنانية، عددها واحد وعشرون طابعاً تبدأ بعِشر القرش وتنتهي بورقة المئة قرش، ومجموعة للبريد الجوي مؤلفة من عشرة طوابع، وكذلك ثمانية طوابع لتخليص الاجرة.

وفي 1936 في عهد الرئيس اميل اده اصدرت الدولة اللبنانية مجموعة خاصة بالتزلج الذي بدأ في لبنان عام 1913 حين عاد رامز غزاوي من سويسرا ومارس التزلج للمرة الاولى قرب عاليه. وفي 1934 تأسس اول ناد للتزلج Le Club Libanais، وبعد عام واحد افتتحت قيادة الجيش الفرنسي مدرسة عسكرية للتزلج في الارز، وابتداء من 1937 اقيمت مسابقات للتزلج في عدة مناطق مثل ضهر البيدر، اللقلوق، الكنيسة، جبل صنين، والارز.

وأول شخصية ظهرت على طابع لبناني هي شخصية الرئيس اميل اده، في مجموعة مؤلفة من ثلاثة طوابع صدرت عام .1937 وبعدما اخذت الطوابع البريدية اللبنانية تصدر تباعاً، عادية حيناً وتخليداً لمناسبات مهمة حيناً آخر. ويطول البحث اذا ما اردنا السير مع الطوابع الى اليوم. لكننا نذكر المجموعة التي صدرت لمناسبة انتصار دول الحلفاء في الحرب العالمية الثانية وحملت صورة العلم اللبناني للمرة الاولى.

وخلاصة الكلام في هذا الكتاب ان الطوابع الموجودة في هذا المؤلف تظهر التسلسل التاريخي للاحداث التي مر بها لبنان منذ استقلاله حتى الآن. ففيه مثلاً ذكرى المؤتمر البريدي العربي وذكرى الجلاء والمؤتمرات البريدية واللاسلكية العالمية والصليب الاحمر اللبناني والمؤتمر الثقافي العالمي والاتحاد البريدي العالمي وشهر المغتربين ،1950 وذكرى تدشين مطار بيروت ،1951 وذكرى اول طائرة ضخمة جاءت الى لبنان بواسطة آير ليبان Air Liban، وترميم قصر بيت الدين، وذكرى افتتاح مطار بيروت الدولي ،1954 وتأسيس مشروع الليطاني 1954 وذكرى مهرجانات بعلبك الدولية الاولى 1956 ومؤتمر بيروت للملوك والرؤساء العرب .1956

والعام الماضي (28-10-2004)كان آخر طابع اصدرته الدولة اللبنانية لمناسبة العيد الـ125 لتأسيس جامعة القديس يوسف في بيروت.

خلاصة القول ان في اصدار هذا العمل جهداً كبيراً بذله شفيق طالب، صاحب الكتاب، يشكر عليه لأنه أرّخ للبنان وللاحداث المهمة التي عرفها، والذكريات التي يجب ألا تغيب عن الاذهان، بالصور بدلاً من النص. ولا بد من التنويه بالجهد في اخراج الكتاب بحلته الجميلة وطباعته الانيقة.

مراجعات: نجيب البعيني - النهار

لبنان في طوابعه

مجموعة
شفيق طالب

التوفر:
عدد الاجزاء: 1
سنة النشر: 2001
الطبعة رقم: 1
الناشر: دار النهار
صفحة: 275
القياس 24*33 سم:




لبنان مصور بطوابعه -د. جوزيف حاتم
2011-02-19


لم يشأ اللبناني الدكتور جوزف حاتم، الذي عمل في مجال علوم الحياة ما يناهز 50 عاما، ومستشارا لمنظمة الصحة العالمية، أن ينسى أحفاده الأميركيون (جوزف وليلى وجيمي) والفرنسيون (مكسيم وفيليب) والكندي (أندره) وسائر أطفال لبنان، جذورهم، كما لم يشأ أن يطمس البريد الإلكتروني الطوابع البريدية اللبنانية التي تصور تاريخ لبنان برؤسائه ورجاله وثقافته وفرادته، فآل على نفسه أن ينتقل من هاوٍ لجمع الطوابع البريدية إلى محترف يلامس التاريخ، وتأثر بمجموعة شفيق طالب «لبنان في طوابعه» التي تعرض الطوابع عرضا بارعا يعتمد على توقيت الإصدارات.

وأصر حاتم على أن يترجم احترافه في أول كتاب من نوعه في لبنان أصدره حديثا تحت عنوان «لبنان مصور بطوابعه» (205 صفحات صادر عن دار «درغام» للنشر)، وهو غاية في الأناقة، ورقا وصورا وغلافا، وكُتب باللغتين العربية والفرنسية، ويطمح الكاتب إلى أن يصدر مجموعته بالإنجليزية والبرتغالية والإسبانية لـ«كون المتحدرين من أصل لبناني منتشرين في كل أصقاع الأرض». وقد زين الكتاب بقصائد لشارل قرم وشبلي الملاط وناديا تويني وميشال شيحا وهكتور خلاط وشكري غانم وفينوس خوري ومعروف الرصافي والأخطل الصغير. كما استعان بمقاطع لرينان ولامارتين وجيروم وجون تارو وغيرهم.

يتألف الكتاب من خمسة أقسام: الأول يعيد إلى الذاكرة مسار إنشاء لبنان الحديث منذ حكم الأمراء نهاية القرن السادس عشر وحتى بزوغ الدولة الحديثة. ويتناول الثاني لبنان في إطاريه العربي والدولي. ويغطي الثالث أبزر وجوه التراث اللبناني، ويُعنَى الرابع بدينامية المجتمع اللبناني في الوطن والمهاجر، وأخيرا يتناول الجزء الخامس الأحداث العالمية المهمة.

وإذا كان حاتم لا يدّعي هذا الكتاب «تأريخا للبنان، ولا دليلا شاملا لطوابعه»، فإنه يكتفي بـ«تصوير معظم جوانب تاريخ لبنان والحياة اللبنانية»، منذ إعلان دولة لبنان الكبير في عام 1920، وبدء البريد اللبناني مذ ذاك بإصدار مجموعات من الطوابع التذكارية. ويقول لـ«الشرق الأوسط»: «لقد مارست هواية جمع الطوابع منذ نحو ثلاثة عقود، بعدما استفزني جمال مجموعاتها، واستوقفني ما تمثله من تاريخ ومحطات ورجال، فاستولت علي فكرة ضم ما جمعت في كتاب لعلّني أذكر فيه أجيالنا الطالعة بجذورها وينابيعها، لكون الطوابع البريدية، التي أعقبت أول طابع بريدي ابتكره رولند هيل في لندن حاملا صورة جانبية للملكة فيكتوريا، باتت تمثل رؤساء دول وملوكا ومشاهير، وثروات التراث والأحداث السياسية والاقتصادية والاجتماعية والثقافية والفنية، لذلك أصبح الطابع شاهدا على حياة الدولة، يحدد حادثا أو تاريخا، ويعكس طبيعة التطور السياحي في هذا البلد أو ذاك».
».
المصدر :جريدة الشرق الاوسط-مارون حداد




تمبروليبان 1983- دليل طوابع - مخايل عون
2011-02-20


 
تمبروليبان 1983  هو الجزء الاول من دليل طوابع لبنان من 1918 حتى  1982    

حيث قام معده الاستاذ مخايل عون بتقسيم  الدليل الى مراحل  استعمال الطوابع البريدية في لبنان

المرحلة الاولى الانتداب الفرنسي
المرحلة الثانية  الجمهورية اللبنانية
المرحلة الثالثة  الاستقلال

 ملحق تمبروليبان 2007 هو الجزء الثاني  من دليل طوابع لبنان من سنة 1982 حتى  2006
قسم الى ثلاث فترات رئاسية

الدليل بجزئيه من منشورات دارموف
 
Timbroliban is presented in two volumes of Lebanese Stamp Catalogues, written and assembled by Michel Rashid Aoun, Edited by DARMOF.

The first booklet (22 x 17 cm) is «Timbroliban 1983» a Catalogue of Lebanese Stamps from 1918 until 1982, it contains 168 pages, 24 pages are for stamps in color, and is written in two languages French and Arabic, grouping stamps issued in periods: TEO, OMF-Syrie, Syrie-Gd Liban, Grand Liban, French Mandate, Independence since President Bechara el-Khoury until President Amine Gemayel.

The other is the «Timbroliban Adenda 2007» (20 x 14 cm) a Catalogue of Lebanese Stamps from 1983 until 2006, all 32 pages are in colour, and written in three Languages French, English and Arabic, with beautiful page setting, grouping stamps issued in periods since President Amine Gemayel until President Emile Lahoud.




معجم الهواية - Glossary A-Z
2011-02-24

A

Accessories: Various products and tools commonly used by the stamp collector, including hinges, mounts, stamp tongs, perforation gauges, stock books and magnifiers. Stamp albums, catalogs and philatelic literature can also be regarded as accessories.

Adhesive: 1) The gum on the back of a stamp or label. Some stamps have been issued with no adhesive. Stamp adhesive may be water-activated or pressure-sensitive (self-adhesive). 2) A word generally referring to a stamp that may be affixed to an article to prepay postal fees, in contrast to a design printed directly on an article, as with postal stationery. An adhesive can also refer to a registration label or other label added to a cover..

Aerogram: A postage-paid airletter sheet with gummed flaps that is written on and then folded to form an envelope. Aerograms are normally carried at less than the airmail letter rate. No enclosures are permitted.

Aerophilately: A specialized area of collecting concentrating on stamps or covers transported by air.

Agency: 1) An extraterritorial post office maintained at various times by a government within the territory of another government. Examples are the post offices maintained by many European powers in the Turkish Empire until 1923. 2) An organization authorized

Airmail: The carriage of mail by air. The first regular airmail service began in 1870, when mail was carried from Paris-then besieged by German forces-over enemy lines by balloon. Many countries have issued postage stamps, stamped envelopes, postal cards and aerograms specially designated for airmail use. The first airmail stamp was issued by Italy in 1917 (Italy Scott C1).

Albino: An uninked impression made by a printing plate. Such errors are scarce on stamps. They are found more frequently on postal stationery.

Album: A binder and pages designed for the mounting and display of stamps or covers. Many early albums were permanently bound books. Albums come in many sizes, styles and themes. See the Album section in this almanac.

Album weed: In general, a forged stamp. It also refers to unusual items that resemble postage stamps but were not intended to pay postage, like publicity labels and bogus issues. Album Weeds is the title of a reference book series on forged stamps, written by the Rev. R. Brisco Ear‚e.

Aniline: Ink with a coal-tar base. Aniline inks are very sensitive and may dissolve in water or other liquids or chemicals. To prevent the erasure of cancellations and reuse of stamps, aniline inks were used to print some stamps.

Approvals: Priced selections of stamps or covers sent to collectors by mail. The collector purchases the items he chooses, returning the rest to the approval dealer with payment for the purchased items.

Arrow: On many sheets of stamps, V-shaped arrowlike markings appear in the selvage, generally serving as guides for cutting the sheets into predetermined units. Some collectors save stamps or blocks displaying these marks.

As is: "A term written in auction descriptions, or spoken or written during a retail transaction. It indicates that an item or lot is sold without guarantee or return privilege. Stamps are usually sold ""as is'' when they are damaged or are possibly not genuine."

Auction: A sale of stamps, covers and other philatelic items where prospective purchasers place bids in an attempt to obtain the desired items. The highest bidder for each lot (described item or items) makes the purchase. Auctions are generally divided into mail sales, where bids are accepted by mail, and public sales, where mail bids are combined with live bidding from individuals present at the auction or participating by telephone.

Authentication mark: A marking, such as initials, placed on the reverse of a stamp examined and certified to be genuine by an expert. Such markings do not detract from the value of the stamps when they represent the endorsement of recognized authorities.

B

Backprint: Printing on the reverse of a stamp. Some stamps have numbers, symbols, advertising or information about the stamp subject printed on the reverse of the stamp.

Backstamp: A postmark applied to mail by the receiving post office or by a post office handling the piece while it is in transit. Backstamps are usually on the back of a cover, but they can be on the front.

Bicolor: Printed in two colors.

Bilingual: Inscribed in two languages. Most Canadian stamps include both English and French text. South African stamps from 1926-49 were printed alternately with English and Afrikaans inscriptions in the same sheet.

Bisect: A stamp cut or perforated into two parts, each half representing half the face value of the original stamp. Officially authorized bisects have often been used during temporary shortages of commonly used denominations. Unauthorized bisects appear on mail from some countries in some periods. Bisects are usually collected on full cover with the stamp tied by a cancel. At times, some countries have permitted trisects or quadrisects.

Bishop mark: The earliest postmark, introduced by Henry Bishop in England circa 1661. A Bishop mark was used to indicate the month and day that a letter was received by a post office. It encouraged prompt delivery by letter carriers.

Blind perforation: Intended perforations that are only lightly impressed by the perforating pins, leaving the paper intact, but cut or with a faint impression. Some stamps that appear to be imperforate really are not if they have blind perfs. Stamps with blind perfs are minor varieties carrying little, if any, price premium over normally perforated copies.

Block: A unit of four or more unsevered stamps, including at least two stamps both vertically and horizontally. Most commonly a block refers to a block of four, or a block of stamps two high and two wide, though blocks often contain more stamps and may be irregularly configured (such as, a block of seven consisting of one row of three stamps and one row of four stamps).

Bogus: A fictitious stamplike label created for sale to collectors. Bogus issues include labels for nonexistent countries, nonexistent values appended to regularly issued sets and issues for nations or similar entities without postal systems.

Booklet: A unit of one or more small panes or blocks (known as booklet panes) glued, stitched or stapled together between thin card covers to form a convenient unit for mailers to purchase and carry. The first officially issued booklet was produced by Luxembourg in 1895. For some modern booklets of self-adhesive stamps the liner (backing paper) serves as the booklet cover.

Bourse: A meeting of stamp collectors and/or dealers, where stamps and covers are sold or exchanged. A bourse usually has no competitive exhibits of stamps or covers. Almost all public stamp exhibitions include a dealer bourse, though many bourses are held without a corresponding exhibition.

Burelage: A design of fine, intricate lines printed on the face of security paper, either to discourage counterfeiting or to prevent the cleaning and reuse of a stamp. The burelage on some stamps is part of the stamp design.

C

Cachet: In French, cachet means a stamp or a seal. On a cover, the cachet is an added design or text, often corresponding to the design of the postage stamp, the mailed journey of the cover, or some type of special event. Cachets appear on modern first-day covers, first-flight covers and special-event covers.

Canceled-to-order: "Stamps are ""canceled to order,'' usually in full sheets, by many governments. The cancels may be printed on the stamps at the same time that the stamp design is printed. A stamp with a cancel and with full gum is likely a CTO stamp, as CTOs do not see actual postal use. CTO stamps are sold to stamp dealers at large discounts from face value. Most catalogs say whether they price CTO stamps or genuinely used stamps."

Cancel: A marking intended to show a stamp has been used and is no longer valid as postage. Modern cancels usually include the name of the original mailing location or a nearby sorting facility and the date of mailing. Most cancellations also include a section of lines, bars, text or a design that prints upon the postage stamp to invalidate it. This part of a cancel is called the killer..

Catalog: A comprehensive book or similar compilation with descriptive information to help identify stamps. Many catalogs include values for the listed items. An auction catalog is published by the auction firm in advance of a planned sale to notify potential customers of the specific items that will be offered.

Catalog value: The value of a stamp as listed in a given catalog for the most common condition in which the stamp is collected. Some catalogs list stamps at a retail value, though actual dealer prices may vary substantially for reasons of condition, demand or other market factors. Most catalogs have a set minimum value for the most common stamps.

Centering: The relative position of the design of a stamp in relation to its margins. Assuming that a stamp is undamaged, centering is generally a very important factor in determining grade and value.

Chalky paper: A chalk-surfaced paper for printing stamps. Any attempt to remove the cancel on a used chalky-paper stamp will also remove the design. Immersion of such stamps in water will cause the design to lift off. Touching chalky paper with silver will leave a discernible, pencil-like mark and is a means of distinguishing chalky paper.

Changeling: A stamp whose color has been changed-intentionally or unintentionally-by contact with a chemical or exposure to light..

Classic: An early issue, often with a connotation of rarity, although classic stamps are not necessarily rare. A particularly scarce recent item may be referred to as a modern classic.

Cleaning (stamps): Soiled or stained stamps are sometimes cleaned with chemicals or by erasing. The cleaning is usually done to improve the appearance of a stamp. A cleaned stamp can also mean one from which a cancellation has been removed, making a used stamp appear unused.

Cliché: The individual unit consisting of the design of a single stamp, combined with others to make up the complete printing plate. Individual designs on modern one-piece printing plates are referred to as subjects.

Coil: Stamps processed in a long single row and prepared for sale in rolls, often for dispensing from stamp-vending and affixing machines. Some coils, including most U.S. coils, have a straight edge on two parallel sides and perforations on the remaining two parallel sides. Some coils are backprinted with sequence or counting numbers.

Collateral material: Any supportive or explanatory material relating to a given stamp or philatelic topic. The material may be either directly postal in nature (post office news releases, rate schedules, souvenir cards, promotional items) or nonpostal (maps, photos of scenes appearing on stamps).

Combination cover: Cover bearing the stamps of more than one country when separate postal charges are paid for the transport of a cover by each country. Also stamps of the same country canceled at two different times on the same cover as a souvenir.

Commemorative: A stamp printed in a limited quantity and available for purchase for a limited time. The design may note an anniversary associated with an individual, an historic event, or a national landmark. See also Definitive.

Compound perforations: Different gauge perforations on different sides of a single stamp. The sides with the different gauge measurements are usually perpendicular.

Condition: The overall appearance and soundness of a stamp or cover. Positive condition factors include fresh full color, full original gum on unused stamps, and so on. Damage such as creases, tears, thinned paper, short perforation teeth, toning and so on negatively affect condition.

Controlled mail: A system in which the mailer selects philatelically desirable issues for outgoing mail, arranges for a specific manner of cancellation and secures the stamps' return by the addressee. In some cases such controlled mail operations may provide rare examples of specific rate fulfillment, or other similar postal use..

Corner card: An imprinted return address, generally in the upper-left corner of an envelope, from a commercial, institutional or private source, similar to business card or letterhead imprints.

Counterfeit: Any stamp, cancellation or cover created for deception or imitation, intended to be accepted by others as genuine. A counterfeit stamp is designed to deceive postal authorities.

Cover: An envelope or piece of postal stationery, usually one that has been mailed. Folded letters that were addressed and mailed without an envelope and the wrappers from mailed parcels are also covers.

Crash cover: A cover that has been salvaged from the crash of an airplane, train, ship or other vehicle. Such covers often carry a postal marking explaining damage or delay in delivery.

Crease: A noticeable weakening of the paper of a stamp or cover, caused by its being folded or bent at some point. Creases substantially lower a stamp's value. Creases particularly affect cover values when they extend through the attached stamp or a postal marking. Stamp creases are visible in watermark fluid.

Cut cancellation: A cancellation that intentionally slices into the stamp paper. Often a wedge-shaped section is cut away. On many issues, such cancellations indicate use of postage stamps as fiscals (revenues) or telegraph stamps rather than as postage. Cut cancellations were used experimentally on early United States postage stamps to prevent reuse.

Cylinder: A curved printing plate used on a modern rotary press. The plate has no seams. For United States stamps, cylinders are used to print gravure stamps. See also Sleeve.

Cancellation: A marking intended to show a stamp has been used and is no longer valid as postage. Modern cancels usually include the name of the original mailing location or a nearby sorting facility and the date of mailing. Most cancellations also include a section of lines, bars, text or a design that prints upon the postage stamp to invalidate it. This part of a cancel is called the killer.

CTO: "Canceled-to-order. Stamps are ""canceled to order,'' usually in full sheets, by many governments. The cancels may be printed on the stamps at the same time that the stamp design is printed. A stamp with a cancel and with full gum is likely a CTO stamp, as CTOs do not see actual postal use. CTO stamps are sold to stamp dealers at large discounts from face value. Most catalogs say whether they price CTO stamps or genuinely used stamps."

D

Dead country: A former stamp-issuing entity that has ceased issuing its own stamps. Also, the old name of an active stamp-issuing entity that has changed its name, so that the old name will no longer be used on stamps.

definitive: Stamp issued in a large indefinite quantity and for an indefinite period, usually several years or more. The United States Presidential issue of 1938 and the 1995 32› Flag Over Porch stamps are examples. Definitive stamp designs usually do not honor a specific time-dated event.

Deltiology: Picture postcard collecting.

Denomination: The face value of a stamp, usually indicated by numerals printed as part of the design. Some modern U.S. stamps produced for rate changes are denominated with a letter. A numerical value is assigned when the letter stamps are issued. An example of this is the H-rate Hat stamp of 1998, which represented the first-class rate of 33›.

Die: The original engraving of a stamp design, usually recess-engraved in reverse on a small flat piece of soft steel. In traditional intaglio printing, a transfer roll is made from a die and printing plates are made from impressions of the transfer roll. When more than one die is used in the production of an issue, distinctive varieties are often identifiable.

Die cut: A form of separation usually employed on self-adhesive stamps. During processing, an edged tool (die) completely penetrates the stamp paper on all sides of the printed stamp, making the removal of the individual stamps from the liner possible. Die cuts may be straight, shaped in wavy lines to simulate perforation teeth, or take other forms.

Directory markings: "Postal indication of failed delivery attempt, stating the reason for failure. Examples are ""No Such Number,'' ""Address Unknown'' and ""Moved.''"

Duplex cancel: A two-part postal marking consisting of a canceler and a postmark. The canceler voids the stamp so it cannot be reused. The postmark notes the date and place of mailing.

Duplicate: An additional copy of a stamp that one already has in a collection. Beginners often consider stamps to be duplicates that really are not, because they overlook perforation, watermark or color varieties.

E

Earliest known use: The cover or piece that documents the earliest date on which a stamp or postal stationery item is known to be used. New discoveries can change an established EKU. The EKU for a classic issue may be after the official issue date. Because of accidental early sales, the EKU for modern stamps is often several days before the official first day.

Embossing: The process of giving relief to paper by pressing it with a die. Embossed designs are often found on the printed stamps of postal stationery (usually envelopes and wrappers). Selected stamps of certain countries have been embossed.

Encased postage stamp: A stamp inserted into a small coin-size case with a transparent front or back. Such stamps were circulated as legal coins during periods when coins were scarce.

Entire: An intact piece of postal stationery, in contrast to a cutout of the imprinted stamp. This term is sometimes used in reference to an intact cover or folded letter.

Error: A major mistake in the production of a stamp or postal stationery item. Production errors include imperforate or imperforate-between varieties, missing or incorrect colors, and inversion or doubling of part of the design or overprint. Major errors are usually far scarcer than normal varieties of the same stamp and are highly valued by collectors.

Essay: The artwork of a proposed design for a stamp. Some essays are rendered photographically. Others are drawn in pencil or ink or are painted. Most essays are rejected. One becomes the essay for the accepted design.

Expertization: The examination of a stamp or cover by an acknowledged expert to determine if it is genuine. As standard procedure, an expert or expertizing body issues a signed certificate, often with an attached photograph, attesting to the item's status.

Exploded: A stamp booklet that has been separated into its various components, usually for purposes of display. Panes are removed intact: individual stamps are not separated from the pane.

EKU: The cover or piece that documents the earliest date on which a stamp or postal stationery item is known to be used. New discoveries can change an established EKU. The EKU for a classic issue may be after the official issue date. Because of accidental early sales, the EKU for modern stamps is often several days before the official first day.

F

Face: The front of a stamp; the side bearing the design.

Face value: The value of a stamp as inscribed on its face. For letter-denominated or nondenominated stamps, the understood postal value of the stamp.

Facsimile: A reproduction of a genuine stamp or cover. Such items are usually made with no intent to deceive collectors or postal officials. Catalog illustrations may also be considered facsimiles.

Fake: A stamp, cover or cancel that has been altered or concocted to appeal to a collector. In a broad sense, fakes include repairs, reperforations and regummed stamps, as well as painted-in cancels, bogus cancels or counterfeit markings. Sometimes entire covers are faked.

Fast colors: Inks resistant to fading.

Find: A new discovery, usually of something that was not known to exist. It can be a single item or a hoard of stamps or covers.

First-day cover: A cover bearing a stamp tied by a cancellation showing the date of the official first day of issue of that stamp.

Fiscal: A revenue stamp or similar label denoting the payment of tax. Fiscals are ordinarily affixed to documents and canceled by pen, canceler or mutilation. Because of their similarity to postage stamps, fiscals have occasionally been used either legally or illegally to prepay postage. See also Postal fiscal, Revenues.

Flat plate: A flat metal plate used in a printing press, as opposed to a curved or cylindrical plate.

Flaw: A defect in a plate that reproduces as an identifiable variety in the stamp design.

Forerunner: "A stamp or postal stationery item used in a given location prior to the issuing of regular stamps for that location. Turkish stamps before 1918 canceled in Palestine are forerunners of Israeli issues. So are the various European nations' issues for use in Palestine, and the subsequent issues of the Palestine Mandate. The term ""forerunner"" is also used to describe a stamp issued before another stamp or set, if the earlier issue may have influenced the design or purpose of the later issue."

Forgery: A completely fraudulent reproduction of a postage stamp. There are two general types of forgeries: those intended to defraud the postal authorities (see also Counterfeit), and those intended to defraud the collectors (see also Bogus)..

Frame: The outer portion of a stamp design, often consisting of a line or a group of panels.

Freak: An abnormal, usually nonre-petitive occurrence in the production of stamps that results in a variation from the normal stamp, but falls short of producing an error. Most paper folds, overinking and perforation shifts are freaks. Those abnormalities occurring repetitively are called varieties and may result in major errors.

Front: The front of a cover with most or all of the back and side panels torn away or removed. Fronts, while desirable if they bear unusual or uncommon postal markings, are less desirable than an intact cover.

Fugitive inks: Printing inks used in stamp production that easily fade or break up in water or chemicals. To counter attempts at forgery or the removal of cancellations, many governments have used fugitive inks to print stamps.

FDC: First-day cover. A cover bearing a stamp tied by a cancellation showing the date of the official first day of issue of that stamp.

 

G

Ghost tagging: The appearance of a faint image impression in addition to the normal inked impression. This is caused by misregistration of the phosphor tagging in relation to the ink. Sometimes, a plate number impression will have an entirely different number from the ink plate, giving the impression of an error: one dark (normal) number and one light (ghost) number.

Glassine: A thin, semitransparent paper that is moderately resistant to the passage of air and moisture. Envelopes made of glassine are commonly used for temporary stamp storage. Glassine is also used in the manufacture of stamp hinges.

Granite paper: A paper with small colored fibers added when the paper is made. This paper is used as a deterrent against forgery.

Gravure: A printing process utilizing an intaglio printing plate created by photographic and chemical means, rather than by hand engraving. See also Intaglio..

Gum: The mucilage applied to the backs of adhesive postage stamps, revenue stamps or envelope flaps. Gum is an area of concern for stamp collectors. It may crack and harm the paper of the stamp itself. It may stain or adhere to other stamps or album pages under certain climatic conditions. Many collectors are willing to pay extra for 19th- and some 20th-century stamps with intact, undisturbed original gum.

Gutter: The selvage separating panes on a sheet of stamps. The gutter is usually discarded during processing. The gutter may be unprinted, or bear plate numbers, accounting or control numbers, advertising or other words or markings.

H

Handstamp: Cancellation or overprint applied by hand to a cover or to a stamp.

Hinge: Stamp hinges are small, rectangular-shaped pieces of glassine paper, usually gummed on one side. Folded with the gummed side out, the hinge is used to mount stamps. Most modern hinges are peelable. Once dry, they may be easily removed from the stamp, leaving little trace of having been applied.

I

Imperforate: Refers to stamps without perforations or rouletting between the individual stamps in a pane. The earliest stamps were imperforate by design, but after about 1860 most stamps were perforated. Modern imperforates are usually errors or are produced specifically for sale to stamp collectors.

Impression: Any stamped or embossed printing.

Imprimatur: "Latin for ""let it be printed.'' The first sheets of stamps from an approved plate, normally checked and retained in a file prior to a final directive to begin stamp production from a plate."

India paper: A thin, tough opaque printing paper of high quality used primarily for striking die proofs.

Indicium: The stamp impression of a postage meter or the imprint on postal stationery (as opposed to an adhesive stamp), indicating prepayment and postal validity. Plural: indicia.

Inscription: The letters, words and numbers that are part of a postage stamp design.

Intaglio: "Italian for ""in recess.'' A form of printing in which the inked image is produced by that portion of the plate sunk below the surface. Line engraving and gravure are forms of intaglio printing."

International Reply Coupon: A redeemable certificate issued by member nations of the Universal Postal Union to provide for return postage from recipients in other countries. IRCs are exchangeable for postage at a post office.

Invert: The term generally used to describe any error where one portion of the design is inverted in relation to the other portion(s). An overprint applied upside down is also an invert.

Inverts: The term generally used to describe any error where one portion of the design is inverted in relation to the other portion(s). An overprint applied upside down is also an invert.

IRC: International Reply Coupon. A redeemable certificate issued by member nations of the Universal Postal Union to provide for return postage from recipients in other countries. IRCs are exchangeable for postage at a post office.

L

Label: Any stamplike adhesive that is not a postage stamp or revenue stamp.

Laid paper: One of the two basic types of paper used in stamp printing. Laid paper is distinguished from wove paper by the presence of thin, parallel lines visible when the paper is held to light. The lines are usually a few millimeters apart. See also Batonne.

Letterpress: Printing done directly from the inked, raised surface of the printing plate.

Line engraving: Printing done from an intaglio plate produced from a hand-engraved die and transfer roll rather than by photographic or chemical means. See also Gravure.

Line pair: A pair of coil stamps with a printed line between them. Stamps produced on a flatbed press have a line from the guideline between panes. Stamps produced on a rotary press have a joint line from the space where ink collects between the sections of curved rotary plates.

Lithography: Printing from a flat surface with a design area that is ink-receptive. The area that is not to print is ink-repellant. The process is based on the principle that an oil-based design surface will attract oily ink.

Locals: Stamps valid within a limited area or within a limited postal system. Local post mail requires the addition of nationally or internationally valid stamps for further service. Locals have been produced both privately and officially..

M

.

Marcophily: Postmark collecting.

Margin: 1) The selvage surrounding the stamps in a sheet, often carrying inscriptions of various kinds. 2) The unprinted border area around the stamp design. The collectible grades of stamps are determined by the position of the design in relation to the edge of the stamp as perforated or, in the case of imperforate stamps, as cut from the sheet.

Mat: A hard rubber plate used to apply overprints on postage stamps.

Maximaphily: Maximum card collecting.

maximum card: A picture postcard, a cancel, and a stamp presenting maximum concordance. The stamp is usually affixed to the picture side of the card and is tied by the cancel. Collectors of maximum cards seek to find or create cards with stamp, cancel and picture in maximum agreement, or concordance. The statutes of the International Federation of Philately (FIP) give specific explanatory notes for the postage stamp, the picture postcard, the cancel, concordance of subject, concordance of place and concordance of time. (See Exhibiting chapter.)

Meter: The mechanical or digital device that creates a valid denominated postage imprint known as a meter stamp. Postage is prepaid to the regulating postal authority. Meters were authorized by the UPU in 1920. They are used today by volume mailers to cut the cost of franking mail.

Microprinting: Extremely small letters or numbers added to the designs of selected United States stamps as a security feature. In most cases, 8-power magnification or greater is needed to read microprinting.

Miniature sheet: A smaller-than-normal pane of stamps issued only in that form or in addition to full panes. A miniature sheet is usually without marginal markings or text saying that the sheet was issued in conjunction with or to commemorate some event. See also Souvenir sheet.

Mint: A stamp in the same state as issued by a post office: unused, undamaged and with full original gum (if issued with gum). Over time, handling, light and atmospheric conditions may affect the mint state of stamps.

Mirror image: An offset negative or reverse impression...

Mixed postage: The franking on a cover bearing the stamps of two or more stamp-issuing entities, properly used.

Mixture: A large group of stamps, understood to contain duplication. A mixture is said to be unpicked or picked. A picked mixture may have had stamps removed by a collector or dealer.

Multicolor: More than two colors.

N

.

Never hinged: A stamp without hinge marks. A never-hinged (NH) stamp usually has original gum, but this is not always the case.

New issue service: A dealer service that automatically supplies subscribers with new issues of a given country, area or topic. The issues provided are determined by a prearranged standing order that defines the quantity and types of issues.

Nondenominated: A stamp with no numerical inscription designating the face value. The value of some nondenominated stamps are marked by a designated letter. Others may have a service inscription that indicates the rate the stamp fulfills.

NH: Never Hinged. A stamp without hinge marks. A never-hinged (NH) stamp usually has original gum, but this is not always the case.

 

O

Obliteration: 1) A cancellation intended solely to deface a stamp-also called a killer. 2) An overprint intended to deface a portion of the design of a stamp, such as the face of a deposed ruler.

Obsolete: A stamp no longer available from post offices, although possibly still postally valid.

Occupation issue: An issue released for use in territory occupied by a foreign power.

Off-center: A stamp design that is not centered in relation to the edges of the stamp. Generally, off-center stamps are less desirable than stamps more nearly centered in relation to the edges. Stamps that are extremely off-center may be added to collections as production freaks..

Official: Stamp or stationery issued solely for the use of government departments and officials. In many countries such items may be available to collectors in unused condition from the postal authority.

Offset: 1) A printing process that transfers an inked image from a plate to a roller. The roller then applies the ink to paper. 2) The transfer of part of a stamp design or an overprint from one sheet to the back of another, before the ink has dried (also called set off). Such impressions are in reverse (see Mirror image). They are different from stamps printed on both sides..

Omnibus issue: An issue released by several postal entities to celebrate a common theme. Omnibus issues may or may not share a keytype design.

On paper: Stamps (usually postally used) that are affixed to portions of original envelope or wrapper. Often used to describe stamps prior to soaking.

On piece: A stamp on a portion of the original envelope or wrapper showing all or most of the cancel. Stamps on piece are usually saved that way.

Original gum: The adhesive coating on a mint or unused stamp or envelope flap applied by a postal authority or security printer, usually before the item was issued. Upon request of stamp collectors, postal authorities have at times offered to add gum to items first issued ungummed. See also Regummed.

Overprint: Any printing over the original completed design of a stamp. An overprint that changes the value of a stamp is also called a surcharge.

Oxidation: Darkening of the ink on certain stamps caused by contact with air or light. Some inks used to print stamps, especially oranges, may in time turn brown or black.

.

P

Packet: 1) A presorted selection of all-different stamps, a common and economical way to begin a general collection; 2) a ship operating on a regular schedule and contracted by a government or post office to carry mail..

Pair: Two unseparated stamps.

Pane: "The unit into which a full press sheet is divided before sale at post offices. What a post office customer may refer to as a ""sheet of stamps"" is more properly called a pane. Most United States full sheets are divided into four or more regular panes or many more booklet panes before they are shipped to post offices."

Par Avion: "A French phrase meaning ""By Air,'' it appears on airmail etiquettes of most countries, along with a similar phrase in the predominant language of the country of origin.".

Part-perforate: A stamp with all perforations missing on one or more sides, but with at least one side perforated.

Paste-up: The ends of rolls of coiled stamps joined together with glue or tape.

Pelure paper: A strong, thin paper occasionally used in stamp printing. Pelure paper is translucent and resembles a slightly dark, thin onion-skin paper.

Pen canceled: Stamps canceled with an ink pen or marker pen rather than a handstamp or machine cancel. Many early stamps were routinely canceled by pen. A pen cancel may also indicate that a stamp was used as a fiscal. Modern stamps may be pen canceled if a sorting clerk or delivery carrier notices a stamp has been missed by a canceling machine.

Perforation: The punching out of holes between stamps to make separation easy. 1) Comb perforation-three sides of a stamp are perforated at once, with the process repeated in rows. 2) Harrow perforation-the entire sheet or unit of stamps is perforated in one operation. 3) Line perforation-holes are punched one row at a time. Line perforations are distinguished by the uneven crossing of perforation lines and irregular corners. Comb and harrow perforations usually show alignment of holes at the corners. Some forms of perforation may be difficult to distinguish.

Perforation gauge: A scale printed or designed on metal, transparent or opaque plastic, cardboard or other material to measure the number of perforation holes or teeth within the space of 2 centimeters.

Permit: Franking by the imprint of a number and additional information that identifies a mailer's prepaid postage account, thereby eliminating the need to affix and cancel stamps on large mailings. The mailer must obtain a document (permit) that authorizes his use of this procedure.

Phantom philately: The collection of bogus stamps. The name is derived from Frederick Melville's book Phantom Philately, one of the pioneer works on bogus issues.

Philatelic cover: An envelope, postal card or other item franked and mailed by a stamp collector to create a collectible object. It may or may not have carried a personal or business message. A nonphilatelic cover is usually one that has carried business or personal correspondence and has had its stamps applied by a noncollector. Some stamps are known only on collector-created covers. It is impossible to say whether some covers are philatelically inspired or not. See also Used and Postally used.

Philately: The collection and study of postage stamps, postal stationery and postal history.

Phosphor: A chemical substance used in the production of selected stamps to activate machines that automatically cancel mail. The machines react to the phosphor under ultraviolet light. In 1959, Great Britain began to print phosphor lines on some of its stamps. See also Tagging.

Photogravure: A modern stamp-printing process that is a form of intaglio printing. Plates are made photographically and chemically, rather than by hand engraving a die and transferring it to a plate. The ink in this process rests in the design depressions. The surface of the printing plate is wiped clean. The paper is forced into the depressions and picks up the ink, in a manner much like the line-engraved printing process.

Pictorial: Stamp bearing a picture of some sort, other than a portrait or coat of arms.

Plate: The basic printing unit on a press used to produce stamps. Early stamps were printed from flat plates. Curved or cylindrical plates are used for most modern stamps. See also Cylinder and Sleeve.

Plate block: A block of stamps from the corner or side of a pane including the selvage bearing the number(s) of the plate(s) used to print the sheet from which the pane was separated. Some stamp production methods, like booklet production, normally cut off plate numbers. In the United States, plate number blocks are collected normally as blocks of four to 20 stamps, depending on the press used to print the stamps. When each stamp in a pane is a different design, the entire pane is collected as the plate block.

Plate number: Numerals or an alphanumeric combination that identifies the printing plate used to print postage stamp images. In the United States, plate numbers on sheet stamps often appear in corner margin paper or side margin paper. Plate numbers on coil stamps were commonly trimmed off until about 1980; since then the number appears on stamps at specific intervals. Booklet plate numbers are often found on selvage attached to the pane.

Plating: The reconstruction of a stamp pane by collecting blocks and individual stamps representing various positions. This is possible for many older issues, but most modern issues are too uniform to make the identification of individual positions possible.

PNC: 1) A plate number coil stamp; that is, a stamp from a coil that is inscribed with a plate number. The abbreviations PNC3 and PNC5 identify strips of three or five coil stamps with the PNC located in the center position of the strip. 2) A philatelic-numismatic combination: a cover bearing a stamp and containing a coin, medal or token. The coin and stamp are usually related in such cases; often the cover is canceled on the first day of use of the coin.

Pneumatic post: Letter distribution through pressurized air tubes. Pneumatic posts existed in many large cities in Europe, and special stamps and stationery were often produced for the service.

Postage dues: Stamps or markings indicating that insufficient postage has been affixed to the mailing piece. Postage dues are usually affixed at the office of delivery. The additional postage is collected from the addressee.

Postal card: A government-produced postcard bearing a stamp imprint in the upper-right corner representing prepayment of postage.

Postal fiscal: Revenue or fiscal stamps used postally.

Postal history: The study of postal markings, rates and routes, or anything to do with the history of the posts.

Postal stationery: Stationery bearing imprinted stamps, as opposed to adhesive stamps. Postal stationery includes postal cards, lettercards, stamped envelopes, wrappers, aerograms, telegraph cards, postal savings forms and similar government-produced items. The cost to the mailer is often the price of postage plus an additional charge for the stationery item.

Postcard: A small card, usually with a picture on one side and a space for a written message on the other. Postcards have no imprinted stamp, so the mailer must also purchase postage to mail the postcard. See also Postal card.

Postmark: Any official postal marking. The term is usually used specifically in reference to cancellations bearing the name of a post office of origin and a mailing date.

Precancel: "Stamp with a special overprint cancellation allowing it to bypass normal canceling. In some cases the precancel also designates a specific mail-handling service, such as ""Presorted First-Class."" Other precancels may include the city and state of the issuing post office. Precanceled stamps are used by volume mailers who hold a permit to use them. U.S. precancels fall into two categories: 1) Locals have the mark or text applied by a town or city post office; 2) Bureaus have the mark or text applied by the U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing. See also Service inscribed."

Prestamp covers: Folded letters or their outer enclosures used before the introduction of adhesive postage stamps or postal stationery.

Prestige booklet: A stamp booklet with oversized panes, descriptive information and stamp issues commemorating a special topic. Prestige booklets often include panes with no stamps that instead bear labels or additional information, along with panes bearing stamps.

Printer's waste: Misprinted, misperforated or misgummed stamps often created during the normal process of stamp production. Printer's waste is supposed to be destroyed, but such material enters the philatelic market through carelessness and theft.

Printing: The process of imprinting designs on paper from an inked surface.

Processing: Steps that finish a printed stamp sheet. Processing includes perforation, trimming, dividing the sheet into individual panes, and packaging for distribution..

Proofs: Trial impressions from a die or printing plate before actual stamp production. Proofs are made to examine a die or plate for defects or to compare the results of using different inks.

Provisional: A postage stamp issued for temporary use to meet postal demands until new or regular stocks of stamps can be obtained.

Plate number block: A block of stamps from the corner or side of a pane including the selvage bearing the number(s) of the plate(s) used to print the sheet from which the pane was separated. Some stamp production methods, like booklet production, normally cut off plate numbers. In the United States, plate number blocks are collected normally as blocks of four to 20 stamps, depending on the press used to print the stamps. When each stamp in a pane is a different design, the entire pane is collected as the plate block.

Press sheet: A complete unit of stamps as printed. Stamps are usually printed in large sheets and are separated into two or more panes before shipment to post offices..

R.

Registered mail: First-class mail with a numbered receipt, including a valuation of the registered item, for full or limited compensation if the mail is lost. Some countries have issued registered mail stamps. Registered mail is signed for by each postal employee who handles it.

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Regummed: A stamp bearing adhesive from an unauthorized source..

Remainders: Stocks of stamps remaining unsold at the time that an issue is declared obsolete by a post office. Some countries have sold remainders to the stamp trade at substantial discounts from face value. The countries normally mark the stamps with a distinctive cancel. Uncanceled remainders usually cannot be distinguished from stamps sold over the counter before the issue was invalidated.

Repaired stamp: A damaged stamp that has been repaired in some way to reinforce it or to make it resemble an undamaged stamp.

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Reprint: A stamp printed from the original plate, after the issue has ceased to be postally valid. Official reprints are sometimes made for presentation purposes or official collections. They are often distinguishable in some way from the originals: different colors, perforations, paper or gum. Private reprints, on the other hand, are usually produced strictly for sale to collectors and often closely resemble the original stamps. Private reprints normally sell for less than original copies. Reprints are not valid for postage. See also Reissue.

Retouch: The repairing of a damaged plate or die, often producing a minor, but detectable, difference in the design of the printed stamps.

Revenues: "Stamps representing the prepayment or payment of various taxes. Revenues are affixed to official documents and to merchandise. Some stamps, including many issues of the British Commonwealth, are inscribed ""Postage and Revenue'' and were available for either use. Such issues are usually worth less fiscally canceled than postally used. In some cases, revenues have been used provisionally as postage stamps. See also Fiscal.".

Rotary plate: A curved or cylindrical printing plate used on a press that rotates the plate to make continuous impressions. Flat plates make single impressions.

S

SASE: A self-addressed, stamped envelope. An unused envelope bearing the address of the sender and sufficient return postage. Enclosed with correspondence to make answering easy.

Secret mark: A minute alteration to a stamp design added to distinguish later printings from earlier printings by a different firm. Secret marks may positively distinguish genuine stamps from counterfeits.

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Series: A group of stamps with a similar design or theme, issued over a period of time. A series may be planned or may evolve.

Set: Stamps sharing common design elements, often issued at one time and usually collected as a group.

Se-tenant: "French for ""joined together.'' Two or more unseparated stamps of different designs, colors, denominations or types."

Shade: The minor variation commonly found in any basic color. Shades may be accorded catalog status when they are very distinctive.

Sheet: A complete unit of stamps as printed. Stamps are usually printed in large sheets and are separated into two or more panes before shipment to post offices.

Short set: An incomplete set of stamps, usually lacking either the high value or one or more key values.





Seventy Years of Postal History at the French Post Office in Beirut
2011-02-22

كتاب توثيقي قيم يؤرخ تاريخ مراكز البريد الفرنسية في لبنان من العام 1845 حتى 1914

سبعون عامًا من تاريخ المراسلة في مكتب البريد الفرنسي في ببروت"  كتاب متخصص من الحجم الكبير بطباعة فاخرة، يروي فيه الكاتب سمعان باسيل، الاختصاصي في جمع الطوابع البريدية ودرسها والذي يملك مجموعات ضخمة وفريدة منها، قصة الطوابع والبطاقات البريدية من منتصف القرن التاسع عشر وحتى الربع الاول من القرن العشرين، ومن خلالها النهضة الاقتصادية والتجارية التي حصلت في تلك الفترة  في لبنان واستدعت وجود خدمة البريد الذي سارعت فرنسا الى نشرها في بيروت ومدن متوسطية عدة.
اول مكتب بريد متوسطي انشأته فرنسا في بيروت، ملتقى الحضارات القديمة والحديثة، عام 1845 بعد ثماني سنوات من انشاء خط السفن البحرية عام 1837. بعدما كان مكتبا لتحصيل الضرائب عند انشائه، تحول نتيجة التوسع التجاري لمرفأ بيروت مكتباً للبريد، الى ان  اقفل قسريًا في آب 1914 عند اعلان تركيا الحرب. وتاريخ البريد من خلال مراسلات الشركات والافراد، حافظ على شهادات هذا الحضور البيروتي والمتوسطي والغنى الاقتصادي. وباسيل الذي يملك مجموعة ضخمة ومميزة من الطوابع والبطاقات البريدية، يضيء على هذه الحقبة من تاريخ بيروت ومنطقة الشرق الادنى السياسي والاقتصادي وعلاقاتها مع فرنسا.
يقع الكتاب في 231 صفحة من الحجم الكبير ويتألف من خمسة فصول باللغتين الفرنسية والانكليزية. وبعد مقدمة بقلم مديرة متحف البريد في باريس كريستيان موتيل ، فصل كامل عن الوضعين السياسي والاقتصادي لبيروت في القرن التاسع عشر يتحدث خلاله عن الامتيازات التجارية الفرنسية ايام العثمانيين، وعما اعتبره منافع الاحتلال المصري للبنان وسوريا بأمرة ابرهيم باشا ، والتطور في مجال الملاحة والنقل، ومجيء البعثات الديبلوماسية  الاوروبية ، وتطور صناعة الحرير من مستثمرين من مدينة ليون الفرنسية. وفي الفصل الثالث يتحدث عن خدمة البريد الفرنسي في المتوسط الشرقي ومكتبه في بيروت ويلقي الضوء على نشوء الطوابع البريدية  واول طابع استعمل كان يحمل رسم نابوليون الثالث ، وعلى اختام التواريخ والالغاء والتعرفات التي كانت مستعملة في مكتب البريد الفرنسي في بيروت. والكتاب غني بالصور الملونة والوثائق لطوابع  واختام ومغلفات تحمل عناوين المرسلين والمرسل اليهم  وقوائم المراسلات الصادرة والواردة الى مكتب البريد وصوراً لبطاقات بريدية قديمة وفريدة.
كتاب مميز تنشره كلود ضومط سرحال بالتعاون مع آن رباط واندريا ريسيك، من ضمن اصدارات آثار وتاريخ لبنان التابعة لـ "الجمعية اللبنانية - البريطانية لاصدقاء المتحف الوطني"  في لندن.


م. أ. ع- موقع بلدتي

Seventy Years of Postal History at the French Post Office in Beirut

By Semaan Bassil.

Published by The Lebanese British Friends of the National Museum, Beirut 2009. the background to the original capitulations is explained and how the position of France vis-à-vis the Ottoman Empire was privileged, and this was particularly so after France took the side of the Ottomans in the Crimea. The special rights accorded to French residents and the preferential duties on trade. This situation enjoyed by France enabled them to establish strong shipping links with the Levant and Beirut from the 1830s and the establishment of a disinfection station in Beirut in 1834 further strengthened the importance of the port. The 1830s also saw substantial investment by the Lyonnais in silk production and there is considerable detail given to the companies involved and the history of this trade.

The French shipping lines serving Beirut showing routes and postal markings. It is explained that the lack of an effective Ottoman postal service led to the authorization of postal consular activity leading to the opening of a French post office in 1845 followed by other European countries.

All marks of the French post office are illustrated and supported by copies of relevant letters and description of the rates. This includes tax and maritime marks with a detailed analysis of the covers and the different postage stamps used. This includes both letters to France and other destinations. The post UPU period is treated in a similar manner covering the period up to WWI.

A final section covers moveable box mail (including a slight misunderstanding of Sallies) and military correspondence. A useful annexe illustrates the postage stamps used, ancillary marks, details about principal trading companies, a glossary and bibliography.

2009, 231 + 12 pages, large format, full color, in English and French




لبنان طوابع واحداث 1920-1970
2011-02-26
 كتاب لبنان طوابع واحداث 1920-1970 للاستاذ جورج  زعني يعرض عدد من الاحداث الهامة في تاريخ لبنان من خلال طوابع البريد
صدر الكتاب العام 1983 عن دار المثلث للطباعة والنشر في بيروت
141 صفحة بالالوان





Understanding Scott Catalogue Listings
2011-03-12


Scott Number

Scott catalogue numbers are used to identify specific items when buying, selling, or trading stamps. Each listed postage stamp from every country has a unique Scott catalogue number. Therefore, Germany Scott 99, for example, can only refer to a single stamp. Although the Scott catalogue usually lists stamps in chronological order by date of issue, there are exceptions. When a country has issued a set of stamps over a period of time, those stamps within the set are kept together without regard to date of issue. This follows the normal collecting approach of keeping stamps in their natural sets. When a country issues a set of stamps over a period of time, a group of consecutive catalogue numbers is reserved for the stamps in that set, as issued. If that group of numbers proves to be too few, capital letter suffixes, such as "A" or "B," may be added to existing numbers to create enough catalogue numbers to cover all items in the set. A capital letter suffix indicates a major Scott catalogue number listing. Scott uses a suffix letter only once. Therefore, a catalogue number listing with a capital-letter suffix will not also be found with the same letter (lower case) used as a minor-letter listing. If there is a Scott 16A in a set, for example, there will not also be a Scott 16a. Scott numbers designating regular postage normally are not preceded by a prefix. Scott numbers for other types of stamps, such as air post, semi-postal, postal tax, postage due, official and others have a prefix consisting of one or more capital letters or an alpha-numeric combination. Examples of Catalogue listing prefixes Semi-Postal B Postage Due J Parcel Post Q Air Post C Military M Special Handling QE Special Delivery E War Tax MA Revenue R Registration F Occupation N Postal Tax RA Insured Letter G Official O Franchise S Acknowledgment of Receipt H Newspaper P

Scott Illustration Number

Illustration or design-type numbers are used to identify each catalogue illustration. For most sets, the lowest face-value stamp is shown. It then serves as an example of the basic design approach for other stamps not illustrated. Where more than one stamp uses the same illustration number, but has differences in design, the design paragraph or the description line clearly indicates the design on each stamp not illustrated. Where there are both vertical and horizontal designs in a set, a single illustration may be used, with the exceptions noted in the design paragraph or description line. When an illustration is followed by a lower-case letter in parentheses, such as "A2(b)," the trailing letter indicates which overprint or surcharge illustration applies. Illustrations normally are 75 percent of the original size of the stamp. Virtually all souvenir sheet illustrations are reduced more. Overprints and surcharges are shown at 100 percent of their original size unless otherwise noted.


Paper Color

The color of a stamp's paper is noted in italic type when the paper used is not white.

Listing Style

There are two principal types of catalogue listings: major and minor. Major listings are in a large type style than minor listings. The catalogue number is a numeral that can be found with or without a capital-letter suffix, and with or without a prefix. Minor listings are in a smaller type style and have a small letter suffix or (if the listing immediately follows that of the major number) may show only the letter. These listings identify a variety of the major item. Examples include perforation, color, watermark or printing method differences, multiples (some souvenir sheet, booklet pane and se-tenant combinations), and singles of multiples. Examples of major listings include 16, 28A, B97, C13A, 10N5, and 10N6A. Examples of minor variety listings include 16a, 279Bc and C3a.

Basic Information about a stamp or set

Introducing each stamp issue is a small section (usually a single bold line listing) of basic information about a stamp or set. This section normally includes the date of issue, method of printing, perforation, watermark and, sometimes, some additional information of note. Printing method, perforation and watermark apply to the following sets until a change is noted. Stamps created by overprinting or surcharging previous issues are assumed to have the same perforation, watermark and printing method as the original. Dates of issue are as precise as Scott is able to confirm and often reflect the dates on first-day covers, rather than the actual date of release.

Denomination

This normally refers to the face value of the stamp; that is, the cost of the unused stamp at the post office at the time of issue. When a denomination is shown in parentheses, it does not appear on the stamp. This includes the non-denominated stamps of the United States, Great Britain, and Brazil, for example.

Color

This area provides information to solidify identification of a stamp. In many recent cases, a description of the stamp design appears in this space, rather than a listing of colors.

Year of Issue

In stamp sets that have been released in a period that spans more than a year, the number shown in parentheses is the year that stamp first appeared. Stamps without a date appeared during the first year of issue. Dates are not always given for minor varieties.

Catalogue Values

The Scott catalogue value is a retail value; that, is an amount you could expect to pay for a stamp in the grade of Very Fine with no faults. Any exceptions to the grade valued will be noted in the text of the catalogue. The value listed for any given stamp is a reference that reflects recent actual dealer selling prices for that item. Scott Publishing Co. values stamps, but Scott is not a company engaged in the business of buying and selling stamps as a dealer. Unused values refer to items that have not seen postal, revenue or any other duty for which they were intended. Pre-1900 unused stamps that were issued with gum must have at least most of their original gum. Later issues are assumed to have full original gum. From breakpoints specified in most countries' listings, stamps are valued as never hinged. Stamps issued without gum are noted. Modern issues with PVA or other synthetic adhesives may appear ungummed. Self-adhesive stamps are valued as appearing undisturbed on their original backing paper. For a more detailed explanation of these values, please see the "Catalogue Value," "Condition" and "Understanding Valuing Notations" sections in the introduction of a Scott Catalogue. In some cases, where used stamps are more valuable than unused stamps, the value is for an example with a contemporaneous cancel, rather than a modern cancel or a smudge or other unclear marking. For those stamps that were released for postal and fiscal purposes, the used value represents a postally used stamp. Stamps with revenue cancels generally sell for less. The Scott catalogue values are intended as a guide for buying and selling stamps. The actual price you pay for a stamp may be higher or lower than the catalogue value because of many different factors, including the amount of personal service a dealer offers, or increased or decreased interest in the country or topic represented by the stamp or set.

Changes in basic set information

Bold type is used to show any changes in the basic data given for a set of stamps. This includes perforation differences from one stamp to the next or a different paper, printing method or watermark.

Total value of a set

The total value of sets of three or more stamps issued after 1900 are shown. The set line also notes the range of Scott numbers and total number of stamps included in the grouping. Set value is the term used to indicate the value of a stamp set when its combined total is less than the sum of the individual stamps. This happens when some of the stamps in a set have the minimum catalogue value.






جرائم تقليد الطوابع وتزويرها في القانون اللبناني
2011-03-17

عاقب المشترع اللبناني  على تقليد الطوابع وتزويرها، فنصت المادة 450 من قانون العقوبات على أنه من قلّد أو زوّر أوراق التمغة أو الطوابع الأميرية وطوابع الإيصالات أو طوابع البريد بقصد استعمالها على وجه غير مشروع أو روّجها على علمه بأمرها، عوقب بالأشغال الشاقة المؤقتة حتى خمس سنوات وبغرامة أقلها مئة ألف ليرة.
كما عاقبت المادة 450 من قانون العقوبات بالحبس من ثلاثة أشهر الى سنة وبالغرامة من 50 ألفاً الى 200 ألف ليرة، كل من استعمل وهو عالم بالأمر أحد الطوابع المقلّدة أو المزوّرة أو طابعاً سبق استعماله
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لا تلصق بلسانك طوابع البريد والأظرف
2011-07-10


تداولت الصحف الامريكية مؤخرا تقارير مخيفه حول الاوضاع الصحية التي تعيشها المطابع ومصانع الادوات المكتبية، بعد ان تقدمت مواطنة امريكية بشكوى الى الجهات المختصة مفادها انها تعرضت لأضرار صحية جراء لصق صمغ أظرف الرسائل.

وقالت المرأة التي لم تفصح عن اسمها والتي عملت في مكتب بريد لما يزيد عن عشر سنوات، انها كانت تستعين بالاسفنجه المبلله المعروفه في لصق صمغ الخطابات والطوابع، الى ان لعقت في يوم واحد لا اراديا نحو خمسة خطابات لغلقها.

بعد عدة ايام شعرت الشاكية بآلام بسيطة في لسانهان توجهت على اثرها الى الطبيب الذي اجرى لها كشفا سطحيا وطمأنها بأنها لا تعاني من شئ.

وبعد عدة ايام اخرى اصبحت الشاكيه غير قادرة على على الحديث او تناول الطعام، فراجعت طبيبا آخر اجرى لها اشعه مقطعيه على اللسان ليلاحظ ان ثمة شيئا غريبا عالقا بين الانسجه، وطلب منها ان تخضع لجراحة بسيطة لإزالته.

عندما شق الطبيب لسان المريضة وجد صرصارا غير مكتمل النمو ولكنه واضح المعالم يعيش بين الانشجه وفيما حوله يرقات صراصير في طور النمو.

حتى هذه اللحظه لم تكن المريضه تعلم سببا لوجود بيوض وصراصير غير مكتملة النمو في لسانها، وبالبحث الذي اشتركت فيه الجهات الصحية المختصة في الولاية اضافة الى الشرطة وجمعيات حماية المستهلك، أرجع السبب الى الصمغ الموجود على اطراف المظاريف وخلف الطوابع البريدية الذي يعد بيئة مثالية لنمو انواع عديدة من الحشرات بينها الصراصير التي تفضله كطعام.

وخلال عدة حملات تفتيشية على مطابع ومصانع الادوات المكتبية فوجئ المسؤولون بالحالة المتردية التي تعيشها مستودعات القرطاسية من نواحي النظافة والتهوية وتعرضها للرطوبة والملوثات الاخرى.

وجاء في التقرير الذي خرجت به جهة البحث ان المطابع ومصانع الادوات المكتبية تحتاج الى رقابة صحية صارمة لا تقل عن الرقابة التي تخضه لها المطاعم.

ومن الناحية الطبية او العلمية اوضح اختصاصيون ان الفم واللسان بشكل خاص بيئة مثالية لنمو الحشرات والكائنات الحية لما يتميز به من تجدد في مصادر تغذيته سواء بالطعام او الهواء.

وكانت التوصية الوحيدة التي خرج بها التقرير والتي تداولته الصحف والمحطات الاذاعية والتلفزة المحلية هي الا تلصق صمغ الاظرف او الطوابع باستخدام لسانك مهما كانت الاسباب.

وتسعى جمعيات حماية المستهلك الى إلزام شركات انتاج الاظرف والطوابع والادوات المكتبية الاخرى بوضع تنبيه على لفافات الاظرف وعلب الطوابع يحذر من لصقها مثلما تحذر العبارات المطبوعة على علب السجائر من مخاطر السرطان

الموضوع منقول للفائدة




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